Recently, I picked up John Barrow's One Hundred Essential Things You Didn't Know You Didn't Know: Math Explains Your World at the library. It's a nice little book of (usually) elementary but very interesting mathematics and statistics. Each little tidbit is about a page or two long, so it's an easy book to just pick a random page in and read.

One of his examples details how to even the odds with a coin, no matter unfair it may be. The only requirement is that it is consistently unfair.

On first glance, this may seem impossible, but it is actually trivial to prove.

Let *p* be the probability of heads for the coin, so that *1-p* is the probability of tails. We have no idea what *p* is.

What you do is change the "flipping", so that you will flip the coin twice. If *H* represents getting a "head" on a single flip, and *T* represents getting tails, we now call the sequence *H T* "heads", and the sequence
*T H* "tails". If the two flips result in either *H H* or *T T*, you ignore it and flip again.

The probability of getting the sequence *H T* is *p (1-p)*, and the probability of getting the sequence *T H*
is *(1-p) p*, so that the probability of either sequence is the same. Ergo, it is fair with this definition of "heads" and "tails".

Of course, if the coin is significantly unfair, with *p* very close to 0 or 1, then it might take a while to see either the sequence *H T* or *T H*. For example, it seems to take about 4 seconds to flip the coin, look at it and show it to your opponent. So that's 8 seconds to flip it twice. The chance of seeing neither
*H T* or *T H* is *1 - 2p(1-p)*. If *p* is tiny, say at about 10^{-6}, then the chance of seeing neither is *0.999998*, and the probability of seeing neither in *N* trials is *0.999998 ^{N}*. In this case, there's more than an 85% chance you would see neither in a week of flipping (if my calculations here are right - it's late). It would take 32 days of flipping to have a 50% probability of seeing

*H T*or

*T H*. The point is, just because the game is now fair doesn't mean you should play it, as you might need to have a lot of free time on your hands.

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